Some people thought that passing the Wilderness Act meant the fight for wilderness was over. After all, it states that wilderness is supposed to be an area where the influence of modernization is absent. Over time however, we have learned that the "draw a line around it and leave it alone" method does not protect wilderness from current threats. Only in the last 20 years or so has wilderness management or stewardship emerged as a necessary discipline to combat these threats.
Two agencies oversee wilderness—the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture. Under the authority of these agencies, four bureaus manage wilderness: Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, USDA Forest Service, and National Park Service. These bureaus get their direction for management from the Wilderness Act, which states,