For more information about National Park Service air resources, please visit https://www.nature.nps.gov/air/.


Scenic views and native vegetation images from parks within Sonoran Desert Network

Studies and Monitoring

Chiricahua National Monument

Chiricahua National Monument (NM), Arizona, has its own unique environmental concerns based on its particular ecology. Click on the tabs below to access air quality monitoring information from the park and to review key scientific references for Chiricahua NM.

  • Monitoring & Data
  • Key References

Air quality monitoring information and data access:

Air Pollutant/Impact

Monitoring Program

Sites and Data Access

Visibility IMPROVE
Ozone NPS-GPMP
Nitrogen Wet deposition NADP/NTN
Ammonia gas deposition NADP/AMoN
Dry deposition CASTNet

Abbreviations in the above table:

    AMoN:Ammonia Monitoring Network
    CASTNet: EPA Clean Air Status and Trends Network
    GPMP: Gaseous Pollutant Monitoring Program
    IMPROVE: Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments
    NADP: National Atmospheric Deposition Program
    NPS: National Park Service
    NTN: National Trends Network
    VIEWS: Visibility Information Exchange Web System

For more information regarding monitoring and data assessments conducted by the National Park Service, link to the NPS Air Quality Monitoring Program or to the NPS Air Quality Monitoring History Database for a history of active and inactive monitoring sites at Chiricahua NM.

Key air quality related references from Chiricahua NM, Arizona:

Allen, E. B., L. E. Rao, R. J. Steers, A. Bytnerowicz, and M. E. Fenn. 2009. Impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on vegetation and soils in Joshua Tree National Park. Pages 78–100 in R. H. Webb, L. F. Fenstermaker, J. S. Heaton, D. L. Hughson, E. V. McDonald, and D. M. Miller, editors. The Mojave Desert: ecosystem processes and sustainability. University of Nevada Press, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.

Brooks, M.L. 2003. Effects of increased soil nitrogen on the dominance of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert. Journal of Applied Ecology. 40:344–353.

[IMPROVE] Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments. 2013. Improve Summary Data. Available at http://vista.cira.colostate.edu/improve/Data/IMPROVE/summary_data.htm.

Kohut, B. 2004. Assessing the Risk of Foliar Injury from Ozone on Vegetation in Parks in the Sonoran Desert Network. Available at http://nature.nps.gov/air/Pubs/pdf/03Risk/sodnO3RiskOct04.pdf (pdf, 180 KB).

Kohut, B., C. Flanagan, E. Porter, J. Cheatham. 2012. Foliar Ozone Injury on Cutleaf Coneflower at Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Western North American Naturalist 72(1): 32–42.

Miller, P.R. 1996. Extent of Ozone Injury to Trees in the Western United States. U.S. Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station. General Technical Report PSW–GTR–155–Web. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/gtr-155/01-miller.html

[NPS] National Park Service, Air Resources Division. 2013. Air quality in national parks: trends (2000–2009) and conditions (2005–2009). Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/ARD/NRR–2013/683. National Park Service, Denver, Colorado. Available at http://nature.nps.gov/air/Pubs/pdf/gpra/AQ_Trends_In_Parks_2013.pdf (pdf, 2.1 MB).

Rao, L. E., E. B. Allen, and T. Meixner. 2010. Risk-based determination of critical nitrogen deposition loads for fire spread in southern California deserts. Ecological Applications 20: 1320–1335.

Schwinning, S., B. I. Starr, N. J. Wojcik, M. E. Miller, J. E. Ehleringer, R. L. Sanford. 2005. Effects of nitrogen deposition on an arid grassland in the Colorado plateau cold desert. Rangeland Ecology and Management. 58: 565–574.

Sullivan, T. J., McDonnell, T. C., McPherson, G. T., Mackey, S. D., Moore, D. 2011a. Evaluation of the sensitivity of inventory and monitoring national parks to nutrient enrichment effects from atmospheric nitrogen deposition: main report. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/ARD/NRR—2011/313. National Park Service, Denver, Colorado. Available at www.nature.nps.gov/air/permits/aris/networks/n-sensitivity.cfm.

Sullivan, T. J., McDonnell, T. C., McPherson, G. T., Mackey, S. D., Moore, D. 2011b. Evaluation of the sensitivity of inventory and monitoring national parks to nutrient enrichment effects from atmospheric nitrogen deposition: Sonoran Desert Network (SODN). Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/ARD/NRR—2011/330. National Park Service, Denver, Colorado. Available at https://www.nature.nps.gov/air/Pubs/pdf/n-sensitivity/sodn_n_sensitivity_2011-02.pdf (pdf, 7.4 MB).

Sullivan, T. J., McPherson, G. T., McDonnell, T. C., Mackey, S. D., Moore, D. 2011c. Evaluation of the sensitivity of inventory and monitoring national parks to acidification effects from atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition: main report. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/ARD/NRR—2011/349. National Park Service, Denver, Colorado. Available at http://nature.nps.gov/air/permits/aris/networks/acidification-eval.cfm.

Sullivan, T. J., McPherson, G. T., McDonnell, T. C., Mackey, S. D., Moore, D. 2011d. Evaluation of the sensitivity of inventory and monitoring national parks to acidification effects from atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition: Sonoran Desert Network (SODN). Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/ARD/NRR—2011/379. National Park Service, Denver, Colorado. Available at https://www.nature.nps.gov/air/Pubs/pdf/acidification/sodn_acidification-eval_2011-05.pdf (pdf, 2.2 MB).


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Pollutants including nitrogen, sulfur, ozone, and fine particles affect resources such as soils, surface waters, and scenic vistas. Find out how on our Chiricahua NM Air Pollution Impacts web page.

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Last Updated: January 03, 2017