Emissions from human activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, causing an increase in global average surface temperature of 0.7 ± 0.2ºC (1.3 ± 0.4°F) from 1906 to 2005 (IPCC 2007a) and other changes in climate. Field measurements from around the world show that climate change is fundamentally altering ecosystems by shifting biomes (major vegetation formations; Gonzalez et al. 2010), leading to the extinction of amphibian species (Pounds et al. 2006), and causing numerous other changes (IPCC 2007b). This article presents a new synthesis of published scientific research on climate change documented in the National Park System and provides information for vulnerability analyses, adaptation measures, and carbon management.