VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGICAL RESOURCES ON FEDERAL LANDS: MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES; PROPER STEWARDSHIP; AND PUBLIC OPINION

TED J. VLAMIS

Save America's Fossils for Everyone, 6 Brookfield Rd. Wichita, KS 67206

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Abstract—Controversy over the proper use of paleontological resources on America's federal lands has engulfed paleontologists during the past several years. The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP) adopted a Statement of Ethics, part of which addressed this issue. SVP subsequently collaborated with the Paleontological Society (PS) to develop the joint statement "Paleontological Resources on US Public Lands". Ultimately the debate became contentious enough that The United States Senate requested the Department of the Interior (DOI) to prepare the report "Fossils on Federal and Indian Lands".

A survey of public attitudes analyzed the responses of US adults to the proper stewardship of a fossil. The initial part of the survey asked the respondents a series of questions in which they were asked to assume they had found the fossil on their land. Subsequently, they were asked the same questions, but were asked to assume they had found the fossil on public land. The study also analyzed responses towards more general questions pertaining to the stewardship of fossils and their sale.

The results of this study demonstrate that the vast majority of the American public agree on several basic principles which are consistent with those articulated in the DOI study, the SVP Ethics Statement, and the SVP-PS Joint Statement. These include the following: That scientifically significant fossils should belong to the public; that fossils should be collected by qualified personnel; that vertebrate fossils found on public lands should be protected; and that fossils found on public lands should not be sold.

America's leading paleontological societies, the federal agencies responsible for managing paleontological resources on publicly owned, federally managed lands, and the general public are all in agreement on how these resources should be managed. Public policy should reflect this consensus, and these resources should be managed in such a way as to maximize their scientific and educational value. Vertebrate fossils found on publicly owned, federally managed lands should be collected only by qualified personnel, and should remain in the public trust.

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INTRODUCTION

Heightened public interest in paleontology has brought with it an increased interest in private ownership of fossils and the development of a larger commercial market to satisfy this demand. The growing commercial market and its impact on the paleontological community has forced paleontologists to grapple with a number of ethical implications.

CONSENSUS EMERGES IN THE PALEONTOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Because of the scarcity of vertebrate fossils, and because fossil vertebrates such as dinosaurs are especially interesting to the general public, the debate over how to deal with the ethical implications arising from the growing commercial market provoked intense debate within the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP) in the 1990s. The debate led the SVP to add a Statement of Ethics to its Bylaws. All new members are required to agree to adhere to the Ethics Statement (SVP, 1994).

The SVP Ethics Statement contains several principles that are particularly noteworthy for their public policy implications. It begins by recognizing that vertebrate fossils are usually unique or rare, and that they are part of our natural heritage. The Ethics Statement assigns to vertebrate paleontologists the responsibility of ensuring that pertinent detailed contextual data are recorded when vertebrate fossils are collected and notes that collection and preparation should be done by properly trained personnel. The importance of proper curation and the assurance of access for future researchers are recognized by the Ethics Statement's provision that scientifically significant vertebrate specimens should be curated and accessioned in institutions charged in perpetuity with conserving fossil vertebrates for scientific study and education. The Ethics Statement further recognizes the responsibility of paleontologists to expeditiously disseminate information to other paleontologists and to the general public. Perhaps the most important part of the SVP Ethics Statement from a public policy perspective is the conclusion that "The barter, sale, or purchase of scientifically significant vertebrate fossils is not condoned unless it brings them into, or keeps them within, a public trust" (SVP, 1994).

The Ethics Statement has been overwhelmingly supported by the SVP membership, and has been used to guide society policy. The strength of member support for the Ethics Statement was evident when a resolution of the SVP Executive Committee expressing concern over an on-line auction of fossils because it contradicted the SVP Ethics Statement was endorsed by all but one of the approximately 200 SVP members attending the SVP Annual Meeting in 1999 (SVP, 2000).

In order to ensure that SVP's public policy recommendations and initiatives regarding fossils on s were also reflective of the wider paleontological community, SVP initiated a dialogue with the Paleontological Society. This dialogue culminated in 1999 when the two societies issued the joint position statement Paleontological Resources on U.S. Public Lands. The PS-SVP joint statement advocates public policy which, like the SVP Ethics Statement, recognizes that fossils are part of our scientific and natural heritage. It goes on to find that fossils on public lands belong to all the people of the United States and that, as such, they need special protection, and should not be collected for commercial purposes. The joint statement concludes that the two societies strongly support actions which "protect fossils on public lands as finite natural resources; encourage responsible stewardship of fossils for educational, recreational, and scientific purposes; promote legitimate access to, and responsible enjoyment of, paleontological resources on public lands by the public and amateur paleontologists for personal use, and by the professional paleontological community, including professional paleontologists from outside the U.S.; and bring fossils from public lands into public institutions where they are available for purposes of education and scientific research" (PS and SVP, 1999).

INTERESTS SPREADS TO CONGRESS

Interest in how paleontological resources ought to be managed has not been confined to the paleontological community. Sen. Larry Pressler introduced S. 1569 in 1983 in an attempt to open publicly owned, federally managed lands for commercial collecting (S. 1569, 1983). S. 3107, introduced by Sen. Max Baucus in 1992, would have protected vertebrate fossils on publicly owned, federally managed lands in a manner similar to laws that protect archeological remains (S. 3107, 1992). H.R. 2943, introduced by Rep. Tim Johnson in 1996, would have allowed commercial collecting on publicly owned, federally managed lands (H.R. 2943, 1996).

THE AGENCIES RECOMMEND A UNIFORM POLICY FOR VERTEBRATE FOSSILS

In 1998, the US Senate requested that the Secretary of the Department of the Interior (DOI) prepare a study on how fossils on federal lands ought to be managed. In addition to all relevant DOI agencies, input into the report was received from the Forest Service and the Smithsonian Institution. In May of 2000, following a public meeting, and after receiving comments solicited in two comment periods, the DOI issued the report "Fossils on Federal and Indian Lands" (Babbitt, 2000). This report formulated the following seven basic principles and ensuing recommendations for the management of this valuable scientific and educational resource.

Principle 1:

Fossils on Federal Lands are a Part of America's Heritage

Recommendation: Future actions should reaffirm the use of federal fossils for their scientific, educational, and where appropriate, recreational values.

Principle 2:

Most Vertebrate Fossils Are Rare

Recommendation: Future actions should reaffirm the restriction of vertebrate fossil collection to qualified personnel, with the fossils remaining in federal ownership in perpetuity.

Principle 3:

Some Invertebrate and Plant Fossils are Rare

Recommendation: Future actions should reaffirm mission-specific agency approaches to the management of plant and invertebrate fossils.

Principle 4:

Penalties for Fossil Theft Should be Strengthened

Recommendation: Future actions should penalize the theft of fossils from federal lands in a way that maximizes the effectiveness of prosecutions and deters future thefts. Penalties should take into account, among other factors, the value of fossils themselves, as well as any damage resulting from their illegal collection. Future program strategies should emphasize education of federal managers, prosecutors, law enforcement personnel and the judiciary regarding the value of fossils and the techniques for the appropriate protection of fossil resources.

Principle 5:

Effective Stewardship Requires Accurate Information

Recommendation: Future actions should acknowledge the need for gathering and analyzing information about where fossils occur, in particular the critical role of inventory in the effective management of fossil resources. Increased emphasis on fossil inventory should take into consideration, where possible, regional approaches across agency lines, using modern technology such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Such work could also address specific issues, such as the impact of erosion on the loss of resources.

Principle 6:

Federal Fossil Collections Should be Preserved and Available for Research and Public Education

Recommendation: Future actions should affirm the importance of curating scientifically valuable fossils as federal property, often in partnership with non-federal institutions. Future program approaches should emphasize the use of modern technology to improve curation and access, as well as the sharing of information between and among federal agencies and other institutions.

Principle 7:

Federal Fossil Management Should Emphasize Opportunities for Public Involvement

Recommendation: Future actions should include an emphasis on public education and participation in the stewardship of fossil resources. Future program approaches should emphasize the use of technology to increase public education and awareness of the importance and benefit of fossil resources." (Babbitt, 2000 pp. 8-10).

The DOI report also documented the urgent need for better protection of fossils found on federal lands. "In a study commissioned by the Forest Service, it was found that almost one-third of the paleontological sites surveyed in the Oglala National Grassland showed evidence of unauthorized collecting. In 1999, the NPS conducted a Servicewide survey identifying 721 documented incidents of paleontological resource theft or vandalism, many involving multiple specimens, in the national parks between 1995 and 1998. The NPS and the BLM can issue citations under their regulations, but the fine imposed is usually no more than $100". (Babbitt, 2000 p. 28)

THE AGENCIES AND THE PALEONTOLOGICAL COMMUNITY AGREE

It is clear that there is substantial congruity between the principles and recommendations formulated by the DOI and the principles embraced by the paleontological community as set forth in the PS-SVP joint statement and the SVP Ethics Statement.

Principle 1 echoes similar concepts found in both the SVP Ethics Statement and the PS-SVP joint statement. All three documents state that fossils are part of our natural heritage. The DOI recommendation that fossils on federal lands be managed for their scientific, educational, and, where appropriate, recreational values is also stated clearly in the PS-SVP Joint Statement.

Likewise, Principle 2, that most vertebrate fossils are rare, is also clearly stated in both the SVP Ethics Statement and the PS-SVP joint statement. The ensuing recommendation, that collection of vertebrate fossils be restricted to qualified personnel, and that these fossils remain in the public trust, is also consistent with both the SVP Ethics Statement and the PS-SVP joint statement.

Principle 3, that many invertebrate and plant fossils are common, is not addressed in the SVP Ethics Statement as it does not pertain to vertebrate fossils; however, this principle is elucidated in the PS-SVP joint statement. The recommendation that invertebrate and plant fossils be managed on a mission-specific basis is in accord with the PS-SVP joint statement.

Because Principle 4, that penalties for fossil theft should be strengthened, reflects an evaluation of whether current penalties act as a sufficient deterrent to crime, it is outside the scope of the SVP Ethics Statement and the PS-SVP joint statement. It is, however, logical to assume that both the SVP and the PS would want to ensure adherence with any laws designed to proscribe actions contradicting the other principles embraced by those societies.

Principle 5, that effective stewardship requires accurate information, is an important part of the SVP Ethics Statement, and explanations of it by SVP members and officers have elaborated on this in greater detail (Badgley and Vlamis, 1997; Vlamis, Flynn, and Stucky, 2000). It is not addressed in the PS-SVP joint statement.

Principle 6, that federal fossil collections should be preserved and available for research and public education, is an important part of both the SVP Ethics Statement and the PS-SVP joint statement. The resulting recommendation that scientifically significant fossils be curated as federal property is in line with the statement in the SVP Ethics Statement that these should be curated and accessioned in accredited museums, universities, colleges, and other educational institutions and with the statement in the PS-SVP joint statement that supports actions that bring fossils from public lands into public institutions.

Principle 7, that federal fossil management should emphasize opportunities for public involvement, including that of amateur paleontologists, is embraced in the PS-SVP joint statement. The resultant recommendation that emphasizes the importance of public education is recognized in the SVP Ethics Statement that acknowledges the responsibilities of vertebrate paleontologists to public education.

MAJORITY OPINIONS OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC ARE IN CONGRUENCE

The fact that consensus as to how fossils on public lands ought to be managed exists between America's two foremost paleontological societies and the federal agencies responsible for managing the majority of fossil-bearing federal lands is significant. On matters of public policy pertaining to public assets, however, it is vitally important to consider the opinions of the public.

It is significant to note that the overwhelming majority of public comments received by DOI in the public meeting and the two comment periods that were part of the report preparation process agreed that fossils on federal lands should not be available for commercial collection. Likewise, the majority of the public agreed that the restriction of vertebrate fossil collection to qualified personnel should continue (Babbitt, 2000 p. 27).

That this consensus is shared by an overwhelming majority of the general population of the American people is further demonstrated by a survey of American public opinion conducted by Mktg, Inc., a market research firm that has conducted over 10,000 studies since its founding in 1979. This telephone survey of 300 American adults analyzed people's responses both to a hypothetical situation involving the discovery of a fossil, and to a series of more general questions pertaining to fossils. A random calling program was utilized which gave every telephone in the US the same probability of being called. The survey results have an accuracy rate of +/- 7%.

RESULTS OF PUBLIC SURVEY

The following hypothetical situation was described to survey participants, and they were asked to answer a series of questions. The order of the questions was randomly varied in order to avoid skewing of the results by the order of the questions.

"Imagine that you have inherited a large ranch out West. On a visit to your ranch you discover the fossil bones of an animal. At first you think that they are the bones of a cow that died in recent years. However, at closer inspection, you find that the bones are stone, the skull is strange looking, and the backbone looks different from anything you've see. Pieces of bone are washing out of a rock ledge; they are falling apart, and appear very fragile. You recall that someone told you that the fossil bones of ancient creatures are sometimes found in the area. Remember you now own the ranch."

The respondents were subsequently asked the same questions, but asked to address the same fossil being found on public land by modifying the scenario as follows.

"After your discovery you obtain a detailed survey of your property, you find out that you had actually wandered off of your property and into Public Property part of a National Grasslands, a Federal Wilderness area or a National Park. The fossil is not on your lands but rather on these Public Lands."

A FOSSIL FOUND ON PUBLIC LAND SHOULD BELONG TO THE PUBLIC

Figure 1 examines the respondents' attitude to a series of four different questions that probe their opinion regarding the proper custody of the hypothetical fossil when found on public land. 86.6 percent agree with the statement that "The fossil is part of our heritage, it belongs to everyone in the United States", 80.0 percent with the statement that "There should be a law against my selling the fossil", 81.0 percent with the statement that "There should be a law against my taking the fossil out of the United States", and 81.0 percent disagree with the statement that "The fossil is mine, finders keepers". The consistency of responses when asked in a variety of different ways is striking. Each time over 80 percent of the responses embrace DOI Principle #1 and are also consistent with the SVP-PS Joint Statement and with the SVP Ethics Statement.

NB: The percentages for "agree" and "disagree" are reversed for the second question on Figure 1 to allow for an easier comparison of similar positions when a different question is asked. In all cases the crosshatched bar represents those believing that a fossil found on public land should belong to the public.

MORE GENERAL QUESTIONS ELICITE A SIMILAR RESPONSE

Figure 2 shows the respondents' attitudes toward the proper custody of fossils by asking more general questions about fossils found both on public and on private land. The proportion of respondents believing that a fossil found on public land should belong to the public is again approximately 80 percent as found in the scenario-based questions reviewed in Figure 1. 80.3 percent agree that "Fossils found on public lands should be restricted. It should be illegal to collect them, to sell them, to destroy them, to export them out of the United States", and 75.7 percent agree that "There should be a law to stop people from collecting fossils on federally managed public lands". The fact that the proportion of respondents taking the position that a fossil found on public land should belong to the public is approximately the same regardless of which of four question are asked in the context of a specific scenario, or is in response to a general question, demonstrates that these results are not due to the wording of the question.

Support is not quite as high for arguing that fossils found on private land should belong to the public as the proportion of support drops to 64.0 percent who demonstrate their belief that fossils found on private land should also be held in the public trust by agreeing with the statement that "All fossils found in the United States, whether found on private or public lands, should be the property of public institutions like museums or universities".

THE VALUE OF FOSSILS IS IN THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENCE AND EDUCATION; EXPERTISE IS NEEDED TO EXTRACT THIS CONTRIBUTION

Figure 3 examines respondents' agreement with a series of statements when the hypothetical fossil is found on public land. It demonstrates that over 90 percent of the respondents recognize that the value of fossils lies in their contribution to science; and that expertise is needed to extract this information. 90.3 percent agree that "The fossil could be of scientific importance, I should report it to appropriate scientific authorities", and 90.7 percent agree that "The fossil could be of scientific importance, if they want it I should allow a museum or university to collect it". A significant, but smaller majority of 70.7 percent voice a desire to enforce this by law. They do so by agreeing with the statement that "There should be a law prohibiting my taking the fossil out of the ground". These overwhelming majorities would be expected to agree with the recommendation under DOI Principle #1 and with the PS and SVP that fossils should be used for educational and scientific purposes.

THE SAME REASONING PROCESS APPLIES ON A GENERAL BASIS; SCIENCE SHOULD BE SHARED

Figure 4 demonstrates that when asked more general questions the respondents apply similar reasoning, i.e., the value of fossils lies in their contribution to science; and that expertise is needed to extract this information. 89.7 percent agree with the statement that "If someone finds a fossil of a dinosaur they should not remove it unless they obtain the aid of professionals/scientists". In doing so, they implicitly endorse the recommendations of DOI Principle #2, and endorse the positions held by the PS and the SVP. A smaller but nevertheless substantial majority recognizes the importance of public education as outlined in DOI Principle #6. This is
evidenced by the disagreement of 62.7 percent with the statement that "If someone finds a fossil of a dinosaur and wants to keep it in their basement that's fine with me". They would be expected to welcome the responsibility to public dissemination and education found in the SVP Ethics Statement.

NB: The percentages for "agree" and "disagree" are reversed for the second question in Figure 4 to allow for an easier comparison of similar positions when a different question is asked. In both cases the crosshatched bar represents answers that are consistent with the value of a fossil being in its contribution to science.

VERTEBRATE FOSSILS FOUND ON PUBLIC LANDS SHOULD BE PROTECTED

Figure 5 demonstrates that over 85 percent of the public support the protection of vertebrate fossils on public lands. 85.3 percent agree that "Fossils of animals with backbones are part of our national heritage and should be protected in much the same way that archeological remains (human artifacts) are now protected"; and, 88.0 percent agree that "If laws are created to restrict the collection of fossils on public lands, the only people who should be allowed to collect them are people with appropriate skills for doing so and with a permit for that purpose. All the fossils that they find should go into museums and universities prepared to protect them". These positions are consistent with DOI Principles #1, #2, and #6, and are key elements of both the SVP Ethics Statement and the PS-SVP Joint Position Statement.

DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN WHEN A FOSSIL IS FOUND ON PUBLIC OR ON PRIVATE LAND

Figure 6 contrasts the responses to the ownership questions explored in Figure 1 depending upon whether the hypothetical find is on public or on private land. Two things stand out when looking at these data. First is a consistent diminution of support for public custody when the discovery is on private land versus when it is on public land. The 86.6 percent who agree that "The fossil is part of our heritage, it belongs to everyone in the United States" when the fossil is found on public land diminishes to 68.0 percent who agree with that same statement when the fossil is found on private land. The 80.0 percent who agree that "There should be a law against my selling the fossil" diminishes to 36.6 percent who agree with the same statement assuming the fossil is found on private land. The 81.0 percent who agree that "There should be a law against my taking the fossil out of the United States" diminishes to 57.0 percent when the fossil is assumed to be found on private land. And the 81.0 percent who disagree with the statement that "The fossil is mine, finders keepers" diminishes to 46.0 percent who disagree with the same statement assuming the fossil is found on private land.

While the percentage of those advocating public custody does not vary significantly in response to different questions for a hypothetical fossil found on public land (as discussed in the commentary on the Figure 1); significant variances are found in the responses to different questions when these pertain to custody of the same fossil found on private land. The proportions of respondents adopting a position that the fossil found on public land should belong to the public when asked four different questions are 86.6, 80.0, 81.0, and 81.0 percent. In contrast the proportions of respondents adopting this attitude towards a fossil found on private land vary widely in responding to specific statements. These percentages are 68.0, 36.6, 57.0, and 46.0 percent for the four different questions. Perhaps this is because the issue on public lands calls for a relatively straightforward determination of custody rights as applied to a public resource, in contrast to the issue on private land which requires the respondent to weigh potentially conflicting principles of property rights and the public good. Faced with a more complex decisionmaking process, people may be more sensitive to subtle changes in wording.

NB: The percentages for "agree" and "disagree" are reversed for the second question on Figure 6 to allow for an easier comparison of similar positions when a different question is asked. In all cases the crosshatched bar represents those believing that a fossil found on public land should belong to the public.

LESS DIFFERENTIATION IN ATTITUDES TOWARD THE NEED FOR SCIENTIFIC STUDY IS FOUND BETWEEN PUBLIC LAND FOSSILS AND PRIVATE LAND FOSSILS

Figure 7 builds upon the propositions examined in Figure 3 by contrasting respondents' attitudes toward the same proposition depending on whether the hypothetical fossil is assumed to be found on public or private land. It shows that the percentage who recognize that the value of the fossil is in its contribution to science (as explored in Figure 3), and thus would be expected to agree with the recommendations of DOI Principles #2 and #6, does not differ significantly as a result of the fossil being found on private instead of public land. The same percentage of 90.3 percent agree that "The fossil could be of scientific importance, I should report it to appropriate scientific authorities" regardless of whether the fossil is assumed to be found on public or private land. The 90.7 percent who agree that "The fossil could be of scientific importance, if they want it I should allow a museum or university to collect it" drops only to 83.7 percent assuming the fossil to be found on private land. The percentage does drop significantly when it involves the prohibition of excavations by untrained people on private land. The 70.7 percent who agree that "There should be a law prohibiting my taking the fossil out of the ground" when the fossil is found on public land drops to 37.3 percent if the fossil is assumed to be found on private land.

ATTITUDES TOWARD SALES OF FOSSILS

Attitudes of the respondents toward the sale of fossils are explored in Figure 8. The data demonstrate that attitudes are split down the middle toward sales of fossils in general as 49.3 percent agree that "It's okay with me for someone to buy and sell fossils" Further qualification of the significance of the fossils being sold leads to 65.3 percent condoning sales of common fossils by agreeing that "It's okay with me for someone to buy and sell common fossils", but only 34.0 percent condoning sales of scientifically significant fossils by agreeing that "It's okay with me for someone to buy and sell rare fossils, perhaps scientifically significant ones". Because they disagree with the preceding statement, 62.1 percent of the public would be expected to agree with the concluding paragraph of the SVP Ethics Statement which states that "The barter, sale, or purchase of scientifically significant vertebrate fossils is not condoned unless it brings them into, or keeps them within, a public trust".

ATTITUDES TOWARD FOSSIL SALES VARY DEPENDING UPON WHETHER THE FOSSIL IS FOUND ON PUBLIC LAND OR PRIVATE LAND

In Figure 9 it can be seen that over 80.0 percent of the respondents are opposed to the sale of fossils found on public lands by their agreement with the statement that "There should be a law against my selling the fossil". This attitude is consistent with long-standing opinion of the SVP (Badgley and Vlamis, 1997; Vlamis, Flynn, and Stucky, 2000), with the PS-SVP Joint Position Statement, and with long-standing DOI practices (DOI, 2000). This percentage drops to 36.6 percent when the fossil is assumed to be found on private land.

Once again, responses to issues requiring the respondent to balance property rights with the pubic good show greater variation depending on the wording of specific similar questions as 46.0 percent agree that "Fossils found on private land should be legally available for sale", whereas only 38.0 percent agree that "This is the United States, we should encourage free enterprise. A law restricting the selling of fossils collected on private lands is wrong".

NB: The percentages for "agree" and "disagree" are reversed for the first and second questions in Figure 9 to allow for an easier comparison of similar positions when a different question is asked. In all cases the crosshatched bar represents those opposed to commercial sale of fossils.

SUMMARY OF PUBLIC OPINION

The following summarizes the public's opinions expressed in the data of Figures 1-9:

· Over 80 percent believe that scientifically valuable fossils should belong to the public.

· The primary value of fossils is in the information they can provide. For this reason 90 percent feel they ought to be collected by qualified personnel.

· Over 70 percent believe this should be a legal requirement for fossils on public lands.

· Over 85 percent believe vertebrate fossils on federal public lands should be protected.

· Over 80 percent believe fossils found on public lands should not be sold. This drops to 36-45 percent for fossils found on private lands.

· Over 60% believe that scientifically significant fossils should not be sold.

CONCLUSION

America's leading paleontological societies, the federal agencies responsible for managing paleontological resources on publicly owned, federally managed lands, and the general public are all in agreement on how these resources should be managed. Public policy should reflect this consensus, and these resources should be managed in such a way as to maximize their scientific and educational value. Vertebrate fossils found on publicly owned, federally managed lands should be collected only by qualified personnel, and should remain in the public trust.
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REFERENCES

Babbit, B., 2000. Report of the Secretary of the Interior: Fossils on Federal and Indian Lands.

Badgley, c. and t.j. vlamis, 1997. Keep Public Access to Dinosaurs' Treasures. Letter to Editor, Christian Science Monitor, November 17.

H.R. 2943, 104th cong., 2nd sess. 1996.

Paleontological Society and Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, 1999. Joint Position Statement by The Pale
ontological Society and The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology on Paleontological Resources on U.S. Public Lands.

S. 1569, 98th Cong., 1st Sess. 1983.

S. 3107, 102nd cong. 2nd sess. 1992.

Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, 1994. Bylaws, Article 9.

Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, 2000. Minutes of 1999 Annual Meeting.

Vlamis, t.j., j.J flynn, and r.K. stucky. Protecting the Past: Vertebrate Fossils as the Public Trust. Museum News 79, 3:54-57, 69, 71.