4.____-straws speleothems that grow on cave ceilings as thin-walled
hollow tubes. They are formed by water flowing inside the tube and depositing
rings of calcite around their tips.
7. These are formed when stalactites and stalagmites grow together or
when one of them grows all the way to the floor or ceiling.
11. The subsurface zone between the surface of the land and the water
table, also known as the unsaturated zone
13. Accumulations of dung in caves, generally from bats.
15. Knobby clusters of calcite or aragonite formed by evaporation and/or
loss of carbon dioxide.
18. An animal that lives its entire life within a cave and is specifically
adapted to life in total darkness (some by losing their eyes or lacking
pigmentation (color)). Examples at Mammoth Cave include the eyeless
fish, shrimp, and crayfish.
19. The only mammal that can fly, known for its use of echolocation
to move and hunt in the dark.
1. this term identifies any type of secondary mineral deposit formed
in a cave, these are commonly known as cave formations.
2. These form where films of water flow over walls, floors and formations,
depositing sheets of calcium carbonate like icing.
3. These grow up from the floor where mineral-laden water drips from
above. They are often, but not always, found beneath stalactites. They
also have flat or rounded tops as compared to the carrot shaped stalactites.
4. A funnel shaped depression in a karst area, these can be created
through dissolution or collapse of land into an underlying cave
5. These form where drops of mineral-laden water trickle down the undersides
of inclined ceilings, leaving deposits in lines which fold and curl
as if they were drapes or curtains.
6. In karst, the process of dissolving rock to make landforms.
8. People who study the formations, geology, and hydrology of caves
and their environment.
9. The subsurface zone below the water table in which all spaces are
filled with water. This is also known as the saturated zone.
10. A type of mild, naturally occurring, acid that dissolves limestone,
dolomite, and marble to form karst features.
12. These grow down from the ceiling and form as mineral layers are
deposited by water flowing over the outside of soda straws. They form
after the centers of the hollow soda straws become plugged.
14. A type of topography formed by the dissolution of soluble rocks
and characterized by sinkholes, caves, and underground streams.
16. A natural underground open space, generally with a connection to
the surface and large enough for a person to enter.
17. A sedimentary rock consisting chiefly of calcium carbonate in the
form of calcite.
Bat, Carbonic, Cave, Columns, Dissolution, Draperies, Flowstone, Guano,
Karst, Limestone, Phreatic_zone, Popcorn, Soda, Sinkhole, Speleologist,
Stalactites, Stalagmites, Speleothem, Troglobite, Vadose_zone