Particulate Matter Speciation
Lime Kiln PM10
Recommendations for modeling the particulate matter (PM10) speciation for three types of Coal-fired Rotary Lime Kilns (with Fabric Filters, with Venturi Scrubbers, and with ESPs), plus Gas-fired and Oil-fired Calcimatic kilns with Venturi Scrubbers, are contained in the Excel workbooks available in the Highlights box. Instructions for using the workbooks are available below.
The derivation of these values is based on data from AP-42, Section 11.17 (Lime Manufacturing), plus information provided by Eric Malès of the National Lime Association, as described below. Any individual source may deviate from these recommendations with the conditional approval of the Federal Land Manager (FLM) and the Regulatory Authority. Applicants seeking approval of an alternate speciation profile should submit stack testing data or other documentation supporting use of a different profile for the source in question. Where a different speciation profile is approved, the FLMs may request that the Regulatory Authority include emissions testing requirements in the source’s permit to confirm the validity of the alternate profile.
The filterable PM10 represents the emissions captured using the Method 5 "front-half" filter and the condensable PM10 represents the emissions captured using the Method 202 "back half" method.
Filterable PM10 mass is speciated as follows. Filterable PM10 size speciation data are given in AP-42 Tables 11.17-21 and 11.17-7. Filterable mass sized 2.5 microns or less fall into the fine PM10 category when calculating light extinction with the CALPUFF system. Although most of the fine PM10 has a light extinction coefficient (Bext) of 1.0, the FLMs will assume that a nominal portion of the fine PM10 emissions is unburned elemental carbon (Bext of 10) contained in the effluent. The remainder of the filterable PM10 is coarse PM10 which has a light extinction coefficient (Bext) of 0.6.
The breakdown of the condensable PM10 emissions is based on information provided by Air Control Technologies (ACT) on behalf of the National Lime Association. Based upon a review of stack test data, ACT demonstrated that the "inorganic" condensable PM is about 0.036 lb/ton of clinker, and the "organic" condensable PM is typically 2.4% of the condensable fraction. This "organic" fraction should be modeled as Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) with a light extinction coefficient of 4.0. The "inorganic" condensable PM10 (CPM IOR) is assumed comprised of sulfate (SO4) with a light extinction coefficient of 3.0 * f (RH), which accounts for the hygroscopic growth of sulfate aerosol in the presence of water vapor. This growth in particle size increases the light-scattering abilities of the sulfate aerosols2.
The recommended PM10 speciation should be applied to the PM10 emission rate estimated for the source. Ideally, both the "filterable" and "condensable" PM10 emissions would be provided. Also, for modeling of visibility impacts and 24-hour PM10 NAAQS and PSD increments, the PM10 emission rate input to CALPUFF should not represent a compliance averaging time of longer than 24-hours.
Using the Workbooks
PLEASE NOTE: These workbooks are not "recyclable". Depending upon how you use them, certain links may be broken that would be essential for a different application. Download the workbook, rename the workbook before beginning any calculations, and use a new workbook for each application.
Select the Excel workbook that most closely resembles the process/control in question. (You can ignore the magenta/bold f(RH) value which is included to test the effect of humidity on relative light extinction of the various species.) Except as indicated, the bold values in the body of the spreadsheets represent data that were entered directly and originated in either AP-42 Table 11.17-2, were provided by the National Lime Association, or, in the case of the "% of Fines" value for elemental carbon, is from Table 6 of EPA’s January 2002 DRAFT "Catalog of Global Emissions Inventories and Emission Inventory Tools for Black Carbon"3. Do not change any value in a cell that is not both bold and colored magenta, orange, or yellow.
Based upon the emissions data available (total or filterable PM10 in lb/hr or lb/ton of lime), enter the emission rate into the appropriate (orange or yellow) cell with a corresponding dummy value. Corresponding emission rates for filterables and condensibles will show up in the green cells, and emission rates for each species of condensibles will appear in the blue cells–use these values. All condensable PM10 is considered to be submicron.
In order to separate filterable PM10emissions by size, the AP-42 Table 11.17-7 size fractions for the appropriate kiln and controls4 were used. The resulting charts show filterable PM10 emissions in lb/hr for size ranges modeled by CALPUFF. Match the proper species with the correct size range. The assumption is made that coarse PM10 is between 2.5 and 10 micron, and the corresponding emission rates are shown in the blue cells in the "PM Size" table. It is assumed that elemental carbon represents a small percentage of the fine PM10 and is all in the smallest size range (magenta cells). The remaining fine soil was assigned to the size range below 2.5 micron, and the results are shown in the blue cells (in g/sec). Please note that the smallest CALPUFF size range (magenta cells) has been split to show entries for fine soil and elemental carbon.
Neither the filterable PM10 speciation spreadsheet nor its associated charts will work unless the correct value is calculated for total filterable PM10 emissions (in lb/hr). There are several ways to do this, depending upon the type of emissions data initially input:
- If you enter Total PM10 in lb/hr (into orange cell C27), everything is calculated automatically for you.
- If you enter Total PM10 in lb/ton (into orange cell C34), you need to make sure that you have also entered the production rate into (magenta) cell D5; then, everything is calculated automatically for you.
- If you enter Filterable PM10 in lb/hr (into yellow cell E40), the spreadsheet will calculate Total PM10 (in lb/hr) in (green) cell C40. Transfer that value to (orange) cell C27, and everything is calculated automatically for you.
- If you enter Filterable PM10 in lb/ton (into yellow cell E46), the spreadsheet will calculate Total PM10 (in green cell C46) in lb/ton. Transfer that value to (orange) cell C34, and everything is calculated automatically for you, provided that you have entered the production rate into (magenta) cell D5.
Or, you can enter the Filterable PM10 emission rate (in lb/hr) directly into (yellow) cell E23 of the "PM (Size)" table.
If you have questions, comments, or suggestions, please contact Don Shepherd at the National Park Service, Air Resources Division in Denver at 303-969-2075 or contact us through the Webmaster link at the bottom of the page.
1 For kilns with a Venturi Scrubber, Filterable PM10 mass is assumed to be distributed as for a Multicyclone. Filterable PM10 emissions from the Gas-fired Calcimatic kiln were assumed to occur in the same proportion (97/350) as for a Coal-fired rotary kiln. Filterable PM10 emissions from the Oil-fired Calcimatic kiln were based on filterable PM test data from a kiln in Strasburg, VA, were provided by the National Lime Association, and were reviewed by the VA DEQ.
2 The values in row 28 of the tables result from an experiment in which we were trying to understand the effect of coal quality and f(RH) on the overall extinction from a given PM speciation profile.
3 The EPA DRAFT document estimates that, for Industrial combustion, .3.7% of fines would be EC for coal combustion, 7.4% for oil, and 6.7% for natural gas. These values appear in cell K22 of their respective spreadsheets.
4 Since no particle size data is available for a Venturi Scrubber, but is available for a Multicyclone, the Multicyclone size data was used as a surrogate.